Season of the witch in East Anglia

As a child I often drove past the roadside marker commemorating the execution of a witch near Hadleigh in Suffolk, causing me to develop a horrified fascination with this unpalatable aspect of East Anglian history. If I had known aged ten that the largest single witch trial in England took place in Bury St Edmunds in 1645 when 18 people were executed by hanging, I’d have flatly refused to travel there with my grandparents on market days.

Many people remain unaware of how Bury St Edmunds in particular influenced witch hunting and trials all over Europe and particularly in the United States. The presence of Matthew Hopkins, the self styled ‘Witchfinder’ led to East Anglia becoming synonymous with witch hunts and his continued activity was guaranteed by the fiscal benefits it offered- he made a small fortune because local parishes paid him a fee for his investigations. Suffolk and Norfolk had been made prosperous through the wool and other trades – the villages of Long Melford and Lavenham are testimony to this with their astonishingly dramatic churches built from wealth, and locals had money to spend in pursuit of proof of Puritanical compliance and religious devotion. It has been estimated that over 100 executions happened across East Anglia that can be attributed to the work of Hopkins. The 1603 Witchcraft Act brought an end to this in an era that had till then provided a ‘perfect storm’ of factors- a civil war, politics, religion and a belief in the supernatural underpinned by a collective external locus of control, which made Hopkins and his ilk so persuasive and successful.

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A drawing of Hopkins from his book The Discovery Of Witches

This frenzy that gripped the Bury area in the 17th century served as template and encouragement for the Salem witch trials in the States resulting in around 200 witch trials in the area in the mid-17th century- another more grotesque link to add to the already strong connections between New England and East Anglia.

Says James Sharpe, professor of early modern history at the University of York and author of the books Instruments Of Darkness and The Bewitching Of Anne Gunter on the BBC Radio Suffolk website-

“It’s a very important part of the history of Bury St Edmunds. I think there’s a recognition that the trials were important for the development of law and the price paid by innocent people because others had accused them of witchcraft.”

Thingoe Hill in the town was the usual gathering place for crowds to watch the public hangings and burnings of witches- in 1662 two elderly widows from Lowestoft were put to death after being accused of casting spells upon the daughters of a local fish merchant, Samuel Pacey. Amy Denny and Rose Cullender were stripped naked and Cullender was seen to possess a growth on her body that was believed to be a teat used to suckle her Devil’s familiar (a pig, a cat or a toad, usually) which, added to other ‘evidence’ – misfortune suffered by neighbours, the deaths of horses, pigs and cattle, and a man being infested with lice, sealed their fates. The eminent men who sat in judgement on the women, a respected doctor and an esteemed local judge meant the trial and its proceedings acquired the status of ‘case law’ and in Salem, the presiding American magistrates studied the report of the Bury trial and modelled their system of inquiry and judgement upon it.

As a result, East Anglia has a plethora of visitor attractions and events that seek to remember this interesting period of history from museums to special attractions at local stately homes and parks. In Bury St Edmunds, the local museum on Market Hill called Moyse’s Hall has well curated exhibits of witch bottles and accoutrements, dead cats and shoes, either donated or recovered from houses where they were bricked up behind walls to ward off witches/evil spirits. Usually single shoes and not pairs were entombed near doors, windows and chimneys. Sometimes other items were hidden with the shoes- coins, pipes, spoons, pots, toys, goblets, food, knives, gloves, chicken and cat bones.

Standing on one corner of the market place for over 900 years, Moyses Hall dates from the 12th century and can boast a rich and varied past as the town gaol, workhouse and police station. Serving as a town museum since 1899, it recounts the creation of the early town from the building and dissolution of the Abbey, to prison paraphernalia and artifacts of witchcraft and superstitions.

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Moyses Hall cats

The numerous house cats that were buried alive in the 17th century in the hope that they would repel witches still turn up in East Anglia as old buildings are reclaimed and restored. The Mill Hotel in Sudbury, overlooking the Millpond and famous water meadows immortalised by Gainsborough and Constable, has on display its own mummified cat, walled up behind protective glass at the rear of the main reception. Remains of a cat were also found in at the Dukes Head Hotel in Kings Lynn, in room 10 during October 2011. Elizabethan House on Great Yarmouth’s South Quay has, in its attic, a perfectly preserved skeleton of a cat underneath the floorboards (The attic is not open to the public but they generously sent us a photo which is below). This ‘little palace’ as Daniel Defoe described it is located in the heart of the heritage quarter and showcases life in Tudor times through hands on displays.

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Mummified cat at Elizabethan House by kind permission

Cats weren’t the only anti witchcraft technique used by domestic home owners. At the Gressenhall Farm and Workhouse Museum near Norwich, staff will tell you about how old pairs of trousers were found stuffed up a chimney, possibly to stop witches from flying into the house. When you consider the cost of fabric, the time it took to make and repair clothing by hand and the income levels of many working class families, their talismanic status is better understood. Giving up a pair of trousers was no easy decision.

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Witches bottle at Gressenhall

Halloween saw Gressenhall Museum celebrating all things spooky with their ‘Witches in the Workhouse’ over two days a few years ago and this year they have ‘Ghostly Gressenhall. Discover objects of superstition from the museum collections and spot the bats hiding in the collections gallery then take a witch-rich tour and hear chilling tales in the dark corridors of the workhouse. Among the museum’s artefacts collected from all over the region to illustrate life in Norfolk down the ages is a witch bottle from the 17th century. Found near the Tumble Down Dick public house at Woodton, these bottles served as talismanic protection against actual or threatened illness. They were usually filled with urine or nail clippings, sometimes from the sick person, with nails, pins, or threads added in too, tightly corked and either set to heat by the hearth or buried it in the ground. This, as Joseph Blagrave wrote in Astrological Practice of Physick (1671), ‘will endanger the witches’ life, for … they will be grievously tormented, making their water with great difficulty, if any at all’

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Tollhouse Museum

Great Yarmouth’s Tollhouse Museum, a 12th Century medieval former merchant’s house has been transformed into one of the town’s most important civic buildings with a vibrant timetable of family friendly activities and many exhibits commemorating the towns past history of crime and punishment, often with a maritime flair. Built about 800 years ago, grand home of a rich merchant with its sturdy stone walls, finely carved doorway and arched windows, it was acquired by civic officials whereupon it served as courtroom for various different types of courts, the town gaol with the notorious dungeon known as ‘the hold’, and a police station. Over the years it has been home to pirates, robbers and murderers as well as countless common crooks. It has been attacked by rebels and rioters and gutted by enemy bombs. Staff here can tell you the story of Marcus Prynne, a local gardener accused of witchcraft in 1645; not all witches were female, a commonly held misapprehension, and the gaol cells are the site for spooky Halloween story telling as visitors ‘meet’ the witches on trial and find out their grisly fate in atmospheric evenings of costume drama.

Drive up to the North Norfolk coast to Davenports Magic Kingdom in North Walsham and visit the largest collection of magic and allied arts memorabilia in Europe- a time-travel tour through the history of British magical entertainment and the place of one unique family in that story. Admission cost includes the ‘Witches to Wonder’ exhibition, a 30-minute live magic show, live Headless Lady sideshow and a visit to the re-creation of Davenport’s 1915 shop with its very own magician demonstrating magic tricks from the period.

‘Witches to Wonder’ artefacts on display include a first edition of ‘Discoverie of Witchcraf’t, written in 1584 and now recognized as the first published material on conjuring, and the full-size reproduction of Harry Houdini’s Chinese Water Torture Tank, built for the film Death Defying Acts starring Catherine Zeta Jones.

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Fye Bridge

The oldest known bridge in Norwich is at Fye Bridge, down the road from ancient Tombland leading to Magdalen Street. A 13th century structure, it was rebuilt in 1829 and later widened and was once the site of a medieval ducking stool that was used for witches and if they survived they were burned to death. The Norwich author, George Borrow, writing in the 19th century commits to paper, some of the horror of Lollards Pit in Norwich where  people were burned to death for their religious beliefs. Walking through the thronged crowds from the Guildhall Jail over the Bishopsgate Bridge they would spy the faggots of wood piled high on their pyre and be handed over by the church to the authorities and executed. The location married both symbolism and practicality. The pits were formed after the excavations for the nearby cathedral and so proved handy, avoiding the need for the removal of bodies at a time when disease could easily be spread and their location was just outside the city walls, symbolising the casting out of the condemned from the church and decent society.

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Today the Bridge House pub (built over the holding cells) stands where once the pits and execution place stood and a plaque commemorating those who died so awfully is fixed to its wall. On the other side of the road, on the riverbank, is another plaque, hailing the executed as martyrs, naming up to a dozen who died all those centuries ago. It is said the screams of the people are still heard and witches can be seen crossing the bridge.

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Moot Hall

Moot Hall in Aldeburgh archives the life of this famous Suffolk seaside town which, around 1662, did not enjoy the relative prosperity and regard that it boasts today. Outbreaks of smallpox, loss of livelihood to marauding pirates, the three Dutch trade Wars (1652-74) which culminated in the terrible Battle of Sole Bay fought off Southwold in 1672 and the influx of sailors requiring help all caused hardship. Add to this a declining population less able to work and imbue the town with wealth and it is not surprising that the town was caught up in a wave of hysteria against so-called ‘witches’ which swept through East Anglia. Matthew Hopkins, self-styled Witch Finder General, and widow Phillips, his search woman, were employed by the Burgesses to flush out witches in Aldeburgh. Seven women were imprisoned in the Moot Hall’s prison in the middle of one of the coldest winters on record. They were prevented from sleeping and watched for proof of their guilt – that is for the coming of their familiar spirits. Eventually, cold, hungry and exhausted, they may well have confessed and were all hanged in February 1646.

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Framlingham Castle

Framlingham Castle moat formed the backdrop to the ‘swimming’ of another suspected male witch named John Lowes, the elderly vicar of Brandeston who was accused of witchcraft in 1642. After being ‘swum’ in the moat, and found guilty after floating to the surface, Witchfinder Hopkins (Yes, him again) “kept Lowes awake several nights together while running him backwards and forwards about his cell until out of breath… till he was weary of his life and scarce sensible of what he said or did”. Ultimately, Lowes ‘confessed’ to sending imps to sink a ship near Harwich and allegedly proclaimed that he “was joyfull to see what power his imps had”. Lowes was hanged at Bury St Edmunds in August 1645. A plaque dedicated to Lowes can be seen in Brandeston’s All Saints Church and an image of his hanging is on the village sign. The castle itself makes a dramatic day out for families with its majestic turreted buildings set at the edge of the small market town, surrounded by grassed park, a small pond and numerous places to eat and drink. The end of each October sees the castle putting on Halloween events based on witch hunting with children invited to participate in an interactive adventure.

The Millers Tale has gathered together some of the region’s best Halloween events in a guide here. From ghostly walks around Norwich to Scaresville at Kentwell Hall, there’s something for every age group.

 

Ten Reasons to Visit the Caister Region of Norfolk

In association with Haven Caister

The big skies of Norfolk  make it the perfect place to take a holiday with your family, with mile after mile of unspoilt beautiful coastline, famous wetland reserves and the Norfolk Broads National Park. Romantic castles, windmills and forests abound, plus some of England’s most historic towns and cities, all surrounded by wildly beautiful countryside. With theme parks and zoos, museums and a myriad of festivals and fairs, plus fabulous regional food, Norfolk is the perfect place to bring your family. This feature focuses upon some of the lovely places to visit and things to do within twenty miles of Caister on Norfolk’s East Coast.

1. Best thing about the coast

The coastline around Caister has more than 15 miles of gently sloping, clean and patrolled beaches. Locals have been catering to holidaymakers since the 1700s, so they know what they are doing! From the bright lights of the Pleasure Beach to the amber-strewn cliffs near Hopton and wild dunes of Winterton-On-Sea, the coastline around Caister and Great Yarmouth offers something for everybody – and is bursting with wildlife too.

2. Best beach

Within 20 miles of Caister is the Blue Flag awarded beach at Mundesley, with wild sweeps of golden sand. It’s patrolled by its own inshore lifeboat and coast watch, so it’s very family-friendly. Ice creams and drinks can be bought from several seafront cafes and shops, and there’s ample parking. Great Yarmouth Beach offers boat trips to Scroby Sands to watch the seals basking on their own sandbank ‘beach’. The beach at Sea Palling, with its manmade coastal reef, is another perfect family beach and just a short drive from Caister.

Winterton on Sea

3. Best child-friendly café

Fish and chips taste best with a sea view, and The Old Manor Cafe at Caister-on-Sea is perfect for this, providing generously portioned, child-friendly food and surroundings. The friendly staff who are happy to accommodate dietary restrictions will keep you returning, and the efficient service means your excited children won’t be kept from the beach for too long. The Norfolk Broads are also dotted with small independent tea shops that welcome families with fresh food and baking.

4. Best pub

The Archers Eating Emporium at Reedham has a bucolic riverside setting with its own slipway, ferry and moorings, making it the ideal choice for families coming by boat! At this family run establishment -a winner of a Les Routiers Award for hospitality – you can eat, drink and watch the river and the world go by. Baby and child facilities are provided and pets are welcome.

The Gunton Arms
The Gunton Arms

5. Best child-free night out

The Gunton Arms, north west of Great Yarmouth, overlooks the Gunton Park deer estate and is a traditional pub with a modern vibe. The chef uses local, seasonal produce, like Cromer crab, Gunton Park venison and Norfolk fruit and vegetables, which you can enjoy surrounded by a collection of modern art rivalling any top gallery. After your meal, stroll around the beautiful grounds and enjoy the peace of the Norfolk countryside.

6. Best outside space

Fritton Lake Outdoor Activity Park. Kids can ride bikes and go-karts, enjoy the adventure playground with its giant inflatable pillow, play golf with mum and dad on the pitch and putt course or try out life on the river with a choice of three types of boat. Rainy days are covered too with an indoor soft play and activity centre plus a relaxing coffee shop for adults. There’s also nature and history trails, pony rides and fishing.

Hippodrome7. Best hidden gem

The Hippodrome in Great Yarmouth is described as East Anglia’s own Albert Hall, and has been staging family-friendly shows and circuses for decades in the historic building. With a variety of seasonal ‘spectaculars’ on show throughout the year, take in a show then tour its circus museum which allows you to interact with props, memorabilia and recreations of a famous Houdini stunt!

8. Best free visitor attraction

Visit the gorgeous rescue horses, ponies, donkeys and mules in their pretty seaside setting at the Caldecott Visitor Centre; an animal sanctuary near Great Yarmouth. With over 70 acres of paddocks that are home to some special animals including Prince the handsome Heavy Horse, you and your children will be both charmed and entertained. Caldecott offers tractor rides (weather permitting) and tours plus a childs play area for burning off some energy. If you get hungry, a café offers light meals and snacks. The Horse Wise Education Centre contains interactive displays telling visitors about their important work and there is a gift shop attached. Entry to the sanctuary is free but donations are appreciated.

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Bewilderwood

9. Best days out 

BeWILDerwood offers a magical day of adventure, excitement and activity in a forest setting. The woodland theme park is filled with mythical creatures, treehouses, zipwires and jungle bridges, where parents are encouraged to lose themselves and play alongside their children. The food is part of the experience, prepared from locally sourced ingredients, and all manner of dietary requirements can be catered to. If you prefer, you can bring your own food, plus buggies/wheelchairs can access most of the site. Toddlers even have their own Toddlewood – a mini version of the older rides and activities!

Explore the remains of a third century fort at Burgh Castle on the other side of Breydon Water. The fort predates the settlement of Great Yarmouth, and is a great place to enjoy the spectacular sunsets and views. For older or more active children, spend the day at Berney Arms visiting the windmills on the river Yare, then walk back to Yarmouth along the Wherryman’s Way. There’s no need for a car if you take the Wherry Line Train out to Berney Arms station. Have a look around the gorgeous scenery and eat lunch at the pub.

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Norwich Lanes

10. Best places to shop

A short drive or bus journey will take you to the historic and eclectic city of Norwich. Make sure you visit the medieval lanes area of the city – a series of alleyways and open courtyard spaces centred around the Clock Tower which is home to some of the more intriguing shops and attractions. Being mainly pedestrianised, the Lanes are family-friendly with beautiful architecture, street entertainers and food, plus many resting places for tired little legs. Museums and Norwich Castle can be found nearby.