Season of the witch in East Anglia

As a child I often drove past the roadside marker commemorating the execution of a witch near Hadleigh in Suffolk, causing me to develop a horrified fascination with this unpalatable aspect of East Anglian history. If I had known aged ten that the largest single witch trial in England took place in Bury St Edmunds in 1645 when 18 people were executed by hanging, I’d have flatly refused to travel there with my grandparents on market days.

Many people remain unaware of how Bury St Edmunds in particular influenced witch hunting and trials all over Europe and particularly in the United States. The presence of Matthew Hopkins, the self styled ‘Witchfinder’ led to East Anglia becoming synonymous with witch hunts and his continued activity was guaranteed by the fiscal benefits it offered- he made a small fortune because local parishes paid him a fee for his investigations. Suffolk and Norfolk had been made prosperous through the wool and other trades – the villages of Long Melford and Lavenham are testimony to this with their astonishingly dramatic churches built from wealth, and locals had money to spend in pursuit of proof of Puritanical compliance and religious devotion. It has been estimated that over 100 executions happened across East Anglia that can be attributed to the work of Hopkins. The 1603 Witchcraft Act brought an end to this in an era that had till then provided a ‘perfect storm’ of factors- a civil war, politics, religion and a belief in the supernatural underpinned by a collective external locus of control, which made Hopkins and his ilk so persuasive and successful.

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A drawing of Hopkins from his book The Discovery Of Witches

This frenzy that gripped the Bury area in the 17th century served as template and encouragement for the Salem witch trials in the States resulting in around 200 witch trials in the area in the mid-17th century- another more grotesque link to add to the already strong connections between New England and East Anglia.

Says James Sharpe, professor of early modern history at the University of York and author of the books Instruments Of Darkness and The Bewitching Of Anne Gunter on the BBC Radio Suffolk website-

“It’s a very important part of the history of Bury St Edmunds. I think there’s a recognition that the trials were important for the development of law and the price paid by innocent people because others had accused them of witchcraft.”

Thingoe Hill in the town was the usual gathering place for crowds to watch the public hangings and burnings of witches- in 1662 two elderly widows from Lowestoft were put to death after being accused of casting spells upon the daughters of a local fish merchant, Samuel Pacey. Amy Denny and Rose Cullender were stripped naked and Cullender was seen to possess a growth on her body that was believed to be a teat used to suckle her Devil’s familiar (a pig, a cat or a toad, usually) which, added to other ‘evidence’ – misfortune suffered by neighbours, the deaths of horses, pigs and cattle, and a man being infested with lice, sealed their fates. The eminent men who sat in judgement on the women, a respected doctor and an esteemed local judge meant the trial and its proceedings acquired the status of ‘case law’ and in Salem, the presiding American magistrates studied the report of the Bury trial and modelled their system of inquiry and judgement upon it.

As a result, East Anglia has a plethora of visitor attractions and events that seek to remember this interesting period of history from museums to special attractions at local stately homes and parks. In Bury St Edmunds, the local museum on Market Hill called Moyse’s Hall has well curated exhibits of witch bottles and accoutrements, dead cats and shoes, either donated or recovered from houses where they were bricked up behind walls to ward off witches/evil spirits. Usually single shoes and not pairs were entombed near doors, windows and chimneys. Sometimes other items were hidden with the shoes- coins, pipes, spoons, pots, toys, goblets, food, knives, gloves, chicken and cat bones.

Standing on one corner of the market place for over 900 years, Moyses Hall dates from the 12th century and can boast a rich and varied past as the town gaol, workhouse and police station. Serving as a town museum since 1899, it recounts the creation of the early town from the building and dissolution of the Abbey, to prison paraphernalia and artifacts of witchcraft and superstitions.

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Moyses Hall cats

The numerous house cats that were buried alive in the 17th century in the hope that they would repel witches still turn up in East Anglia as old buildings are reclaimed and restored. The Mill Hotel in Sudbury, overlooking the Millpond and famous water meadows immortalised by Gainsborough and Constable, has on display its own mummified cat, walled up behind protective glass at the rear of the main reception. Remains of a cat were also found in at the Dukes Head Hotel in Kings Lynn, in room 10 during October 2011. Elizabethan House on Great Yarmouth’s South Quay has, in its attic, a perfectly preserved skeleton of a cat underneath the floorboards (The attic is not open to the public but they generously sent us a photo which is below). This ‘little palace’ as Daniel Defoe described it is located in the heart of the heritage quarter and showcases life in Tudor times through hands on displays.

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Mummified cat at Elizabethan House by kind permission

Cats weren’t the only anti witchcraft technique used by domestic home owners. At the Gressenhall Farm and Workhouse Museum near Norwich, staff will tell you about how old pairs of trousers were found stuffed up a chimney, possibly to stop witches from flying into the house. When you consider the cost of fabric, the time it took to make and repair clothing by hand and the income levels of many working class families, their talismanic status is better understood. Giving up a pair of trousers was no easy decision.

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Witches bottle at Gressenhall

Halloween saw Gressenhall Museum celebrating all things spooky with their ‘Witches in the Workhouse’ over two days a few years ago and this year they have ‘Ghostly Gressenhall. Discover objects of superstition from the museum collections and spot the bats hiding in the collections gallery then take a witch-rich tour and hear chilling tales in the dark corridors of the workhouse. Among the museum’s artefacts collected from all over the region to illustrate life in Norfolk down the ages is a witch bottle from the 17th century. Found near the Tumble Down Dick public house at Woodton, these bottles served as talismanic protection against actual or threatened illness. They were usually filled with urine or nail clippings, sometimes from the sick person, with nails, pins, or threads added in too, tightly corked and either set to heat by the hearth or buried it in the ground. This, as Joseph Blagrave wrote in Astrological Practice of Physick (1671), ‘will endanger the witches’ life, for … they will be grievously tormented, making their water with great difficulty, if any at all’

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Tollhouse Museum

Great Yarmouth’s Tollhouse Museum, a 12th Century medieval former merchant’s house has been transformed into one of the town’s most important civic buildings with a vibrant timetable of family friendly activities and many exhibits commemorating the towns past history of crime and punishment, often with a maritime flair. Built about 800 years ago, grand home of a rich merchant with its sturdy stone walls, finely carved doorway and arched windows, it was acquired by civic officials whereupon it served as courtroom for various different types of courts, the town gaol with the notorious dungeon known as ‘the hold’, and a police station. Over the years it has been home to pirates, robbers and murderers as well as countless common crooks. It has been attacked by rebels and rioters and gutted by enemy bombs. Staff here can tell you the story of Marcus Prynne, a local gardener accused of witchcraft in 1645; not all witches were female, a commonly held misapprehension, and the gaol cells are the site for spooky Halloween story telling as visitors ‘meet’ the witches on trial and find out their grisly fate in atmospheric evenings of costume drama.

Drive up to the North Norfolk coast to Davenports Magic Kingdom in North Walsham and visit the largest collection of magic and allied arts memorabilia in Europe- a time-travel tour through the history of British magical entertainment and the place of one unique family in that story. Admission cost includes the ‘Witches to Wonder’ exhibition, a 30-minute live magic show, live Headless Lady sideshow and a visit to the re-creation of Davenport’s 1915 shop with its very own magician demonstrating magic tricks from the period.

‘Witches to Wonder’ artefacts on display include a first edition of ‘Discoverie of Witchcraf’t, written in 1584 and now recognized as the first published material on conjuring, and the full-size reproduction of Harry Houdini’s Chinese Water Torture Tank, built for the film Death Defying Acts starring Catherine Zeta Jones.

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Fye Bridge

The oldest known bridge in Norwich is at Fye Bridge, down the road from ancient Tombland leading to Magdalen Street. A 13th century structure, it was rebuilt in 1829 and later widened and was once the site of a medieval ducking stool that was used for witches and if they survived they were burned to death. The Norwich author, George Borrow, writing in the 19th century commits to paper, some of the horror of Lollards Pit in Norwich where  people were burned to death for their religious beliefs. Walking through the thronged crowds from the Guildhall Jail over the Bishopsgate Bridge they would spy the faggots of wood piled high on their pyre and be handed over by the church to the authorities and executed. The location married both symbolism and practicality. The pits were formed after the excavations for the nearby cathedral and so proved handy, avoiding the need for the removal of bodies at a time when disease could easily be spread and their location was just outside the city walls, symbolising the casting out of the condemned from the church and decent society.

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Today the Bridge House pub (built over the holding cells) stands where once the pits and execution place stood and a plaque commemorating those who died so awfully is fixed to its wall. On the other side of the road, on the riverbank, is another plaque, hailing the executed as martyrs, naming up to a dozen who died all those centuries ago. It is said the screams of the people are still heard and witches can be seen crossing the bridge.

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Moot Hall

Moot Hall in Aldeburgh archives the life of this famous Suffolk seaside town which, around 1662, did not enjoy the relative prosperity and regard that it boasts today. Outbreaks of smallpox, loss of livelihood to marauding pirates, the three Dutch trade Wars (1652-74) which culminated in the terrible Battle of Sole Bay fought off Southwold in 1672 and the influx of sailors requiring help all caused hardship. Add to this a declining population less able to work and imbue the town with wealth and it is not surprising that the town was caught up in a wave of hysteria against so-called ‘witches’ which swept through East Anglia. Matthew Hopkins, self-styled Witch Finder General, and widow Phillips, his search woman, were employed by the Burgesses to flush out witches in Aldeburgh. Seven women were imprisoned in the Moot Hall’s prison in the middle of one of the coldest winters on record. They were prevented from sleeping and watched for proof of their guilt – that is for the coming of their familiar spirits. Eventually, cold, hungry and exhausted, they may well have confessed and were all hanged in February 1646.

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Framlingham Castle

Framlingham Castle moat formed the backdrop to the ‘swimming’ of another suspected male witch named John Lowes, the elderly vicar of Brandeston who was accused of witchcraft in 1642. After being ‘swum’ in the moat, and found guilty after floating to the surface, Witchfinder Hopkins (Yes, him again) “kept Lowes awake several nights together while running him backwards and forwards about his cell until out of breath… till he was weary of his life and scarce sensible of what he said or did”. Ultimately, Lowes ‘confessed’ to sending imps to sink a ship near Harwich and allegedly proclaimed that he “was joyfull to see what power his imps had”. Lowes was hanged at Bury St Edmunds in August 1645. A plaque dedicated to Lowes can be seen in Brandeston’s All Saints Church and an image of his hanging is on the village sign. The castle itself makes a dramatic day out for families with its majestic turreted buildings set at the edge of the small market town, surrounded by grassed park, a small pond and numerous places to eat and drink. The end of each October sees the castle putting on Halloween events based on witch hunting with children invited to participate in an interactive adventure.

The Millers Tale has gathered together some of the region’s best Halloween events in a guide here. From ghostly walks around Norwich to Scaresville at Kentwell Hall, there’s something for every age group.

 

Ten Reasons to Visit… Suffolk

Our’Ten Reasons to Visit’ series focuses on Suffolk this month and we have had a great time researching and compiling some fabulous local attractions for you to visit. Let us know what you think!

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Crinkle Crankle Walls

(1) Best Thing About the Area

With its crinkle crankle walls, a House in the Clouds and the Nutshell – the smallest pub in the land, Suffolk is no ordinary place and we don’t do things by halves. Bucolic scenery we have in abundance – miles of heritage coastlines stretching from Lowestoft in the North East to Felixstowe, acres of forests and watery wildlife reserves such as Minsmere – home to BBC Springwatch and our scenic country walks, eulogised by many of Britains best nature writers. We also do culture well too with historic small towns packed with independent shops, theatres and other arts activities and the larger county towns of Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds doing it all on a greater scale. Sports fans are well catered for from the sport of kings and queens at Newmarket; geocaching and orienteering on the rise; rugby clubs and excellent running, fishing and cycling facilities- Suffolk has miles of well maintained cycle trails.

Prime territory for foodies with our famous bacons, hams, local vegetables and fruit; the breweries and bakers plus a raft of award winning places to eat, the very best of Britain can be found under these wide Suffolk skies. This is the county for castles and stately homes with many fine examples and ruins of important residences from times past. Framlingham Castle is one of the most spectacular with a packed timetable of events for families year round and Kentwell Hall is internationally famous for its Tudor Recreations.

Suffolk is a fabulous place to bring a family up in too with easy access, not only to all that Suffolk offers but also to London and Cambridge- the former is only an hour away by car or public transport, putting a working commute within reach. Local community organisations work very hard to welcome new families and we’d love you to contact us if you are looking to put down stronger roots here- we can help you settle in with our network of local Mumsnetters, meet ups and other groups.

(2) Best Child Friendly Cafe

Tucked away inside one of our great museums, the Osiers Cafe is heavenly for families with broad grassy seating areas, lots of ride on tractors, ducks to play with and a simple menu of freshly cooked meals, snacks and kids lunchbox specials. The Wild Strawberry Cafe in Woodbridge is a pretty little place to stop for a coffee whilst kids occupy themselves with free colouring and if you are in Sudbury, the Honey B has a play area, breastfeeding room for Mums who want more privacy (although they are welcomed with open arms everywhere in this lovely cafe), free Sunday papers and WiFi. Oh and the food ls super tasty.

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Osier cafe

(3) Best Child- Free Night Out

Our restaurants have really raised their game. From modern Indian at Orissa , the amazingly creative food at Darsham Nurseries – praised by Marina O’Loughlin, to The Crown at Bildeston, a highly rated pub with bar food and more formal dining that still retains a warmth of welcome, we eat well here. We are spoiled for the arts in Suffolk too. The New Wolsey Theatre in Ipswich offers a cornucopia of events and a customer service second to none. We’d follow a show with a night time stroll along the Ipswich docks with its floodlit marina, late night bars and stunningly romantic views across the River Orwell. Finally, an evening out with a difference- The Cock Inn at Brent Eleigh is a tiny roadside pub that offers THE authentic and timeless Suffolk pub experience. Go there on a Tuesday evening for cheese night where the bar is filled with cheeses bought by locals who then proceed to play roots and blues music for hours on end. In the Summer the doors and windows are thrown open to the dark country night skies. It is beautiful.

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Neptune Marina

(4) Outside Space

Stunning parks, nature reserves and playgrounds makes it rather hard to choose but we’d have to single out Clare Castle Country Park for its Norman castle ruins, disused railway track walk, lakes and water birds to feed, playgrounds and the nearby gorgeous town of Clare to explore. If you want classic woodland then we’d suggest a trip to Arger Fen, especially at bluebell time. The Suffolk coastline offers miles of sandy beaches, dunes and heathlands to explore plus plenty of organised activities for all the family- Covehithe is one our our favourites for its sheer dramatic beauty and isolation. The glorious Pin Mill. estuary in Woodbridge with a stunning sunset backdrop to the miles of riverside walking is another popular beauty spot as is the village of Ramsholt. Sit by the estuary of the Deben and eat seafood at Winkles at Felixstowe Ferry after a long walk along the riverside, looking out to sea. The famous Sudbury Water meadows with swan feed at Brundon Mill, captured by many an artist and the landscaped Abbey Gardens in Bury St Edmunds, packed with town park features are both classic Suffolk tourist attractions. Brandon Country Park with a walled Edwardian garden and the nearby forests at Thetford and Santon Downham are paradise for walkers, horseriders and cyclists. We recently spent a holiday at Sweffling and walked the five heaths around Wenhaston followed by a meal at the Wenhaston Star. The undulating paths through bracken and ferns which children love to run up and down, all within a few miles of the sea make this a wonderful place for a day out or longer.

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Covehithe Beach

(5) Hidden Gem

The wonderful Museum of East Anglian Life in Stowmarket deserves to be far better known as it provides hours of fun, education and entertainment in the most perfect and beautiful setting. Surrounded by acres of shaded green lanes, woods and meadows with windmills, rare breed animals and steam engines to explore, the exhibitions cover all aspects of local life from displays of toys throughout the ages, Romany wagons (and an amazing Airstream caravan) to the history of the former local asylum and a walled garden. Kids can drive mini tractors round a fenced grassy track, play with interactive displays scattered everywhere and eat in the lovely cafe and gardens. There are buggy friendly trails, babychanging and breastfeeding is welcomed and there is a programme of baby yoga and storytime mornings year round. Knowledgeable and friendly guides are there to help enhance your experience.

(6) Community Venues

The Stomping Ground supports Ipswich families via a programme of events, a community cafe and breastfeeding support whilst the Synergy Cafe in Haverhill helps families affected by Dementia -something that is very important when you consider that many of us are caring for both children and elderly parents. Workwise in Bury St Edmunds runs its own giftshop called Cavern 4. Packed with covetable items, my Father in Law was central in establishing this local Mental Health enterprise so we are very proud of it and of the amazing artists who contribute such beautiful work.

(7) Free Visitor Attraction

The whole of our amazing coastline counts as a free visitor attraction, especially if you take a picnic and steer clear of the traditional seaside amusements. The Alfred Corry Lifeboat Museum in Southwold offers free entry although donations are appreciated to go towards upkeep. Helping install an idea of how important the sea is to people in Suffolk and how it must be respected, parents can then walk the length of Souhwold Pier and admire stunning Suffolk sea views. The pier also has free entry although the exquisitely maintained Vintage Seaside arcade games are not free to play. Walking in the Rendlesham Woods with its history of possible ‘alien spaceship ‘landings is another quirky Suffolk thing to do; follow the alien trail markings and get your children’a imaginations working overtime, especially if you walk in the late afternoon when the sun slants through the forest and gives everything a lovely spooky edge.

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The Ship at Dunwich

(8) Best Day Out

The classic Enid Blyton- esque seaside experience is there to be had in Suffolk. We recommend a drive to Dunwich where you can explore the mysteries of this drowned town and be charmed by stories of the bell apparently being heard chiming under the sea. Lunch (and a swift beer) can be had in either the rambling former smugglers and fishermens pub The Ship at Dunwich or the super traditional seaside fish and chips, eaten right next to the dunes of Dunwich Heath and pebbles of the beach at the Flora Tearooms. Spend the afternoon on the beach, wandering along Dunwich Forest or visit the tiny Dunwich Museum which tells the story of this amazing place. The drive home passes through plenty of beautiful villages packed with stores selling local foods and produce. Keep an eye out for the road side stalls full of fruit, veg, eggs and local honey too.

(9) Place to Live

Although the Suffolk school system is in a state of flux with changes from three tier to two tier education, we still boast wonderful schools and teachers including an abundance of smaller village primaries and great, supportive communities around them. Small towns like Clare, Eye, Framlingham, Beccles, Newmarket, Hadleigh and Woodbridge all really good great facilities and possess community pride with a busy calendar of events and promotions and active business organisations dedicated to protecting independent shops. The larger towns of Ipswich, Lowestoft, Haverhill, Sudbury and Bury St Edmunds have good shopping facilities, leisure centres and improving transport networks; they are vibrant and increasingly multicultural with hard working organisations such as Bid4Bury and local chambers of commerce driving towns forward. Many towns are within one hour of London via rail, routed through Ipswich, Cambridge or Colchester and quite a few villages are connected to the network too.

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The Arc

(10) Places to shop

Great effort has been made to protect the local and the independent and small towns and villages like Clare, Lavenham, Framlingham, Halesworth, Aldeburgh, Woodbridge Sudbury and Hadleigh excel at this- we love shopping in Suffolk. Bury St Edmunds has a large new shopping centre called The Arc but boasts ancient streets of independent shops- St Johns, Risbygate and Abbeygate St alongside one of the UKs best bi-weekly markets. Other markets can be found in many Suffolk towns alongside newer farmers markets – the Snape Maltings market being one of the best. Ipswich boasts the largest shopping centre and winding streets of shops over a larger area although the tiniest of Suffolk villages offer a surprising range of eclectic stores which manage to provide an online ordering service too. Check out our many antiques barns too- Clare, Long Melford and Snape all have them still although they have declined greatly in numbers since the heyday of ‘Lovejoy’, the TV series set in and around the Suffolk antiques trade.

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Ramsholt